Tuesday, March 10, 2009

Flea hates Cool but Dog loves it

The summer months can be brutal to your dog. Dogs are much more susceptible to heatstroke than humans because they have to wear a fur coat all year long and they have no sweat glands. Dogs try to cool themselves off by panting but it’s less efficient than sweating so they tend to suffer more from heat.

The Canine Cooler is puncture proof, non-toxic, and completely maintenance free! Other pet beds allow fleas to burrow and lay eggs, but the smooth surface of the Canine Cooler is easily wiped clean. Fleas hate the cool environment but dogs love it.

Use of the Canine Cooler® may alleviate certain canine health conditions or symptoms of them, for example: Hip and joint problems, including calluses; discomfort during and after chemotherapy; hygromas, hip dysplasia, and elbow dysplasia; discomfort after surgery; the symptoms of Cushing's Disease or autoimmune hemolytic anemia; skin conditions; heat stroke; disabilities associated with aging.

This article is provided by America Outdoor, a premiere site about Canine Cooler, Petsafe, Heated Dog Beds and more.

Monday, March 2, 2009

Melanomas in Dogs - Learn, Care and Prevent

Melanoma is a form of cancer in which the pigment-producing cells of the skin (dogs with pigmented dark skin) known as melanocytes multiply in an erratic fashion eventually invading the tissues that surround them. As a group, melanomas can be either benign or malignant and this tumor may grow rapidly, ulcerate, or bleed. In general, skin melanomas tend to be benign, and those in the mouth, toes, or eyes tend to be malignant melanomas. Melanomas can occur in areas of haired skin, where they usually form small, dark (brown to black) lumps, but can also appear as large, flat, wrinkled masses. In dogs mouth, toes of the paw or behind the eye is where Melanomas can usually occur. These dog breeds are observed to be more at risk with Melanomas: Airedales, Chow Chow, Boston Terrier, Irish Setter, Cocker Spaniel, Boxer, Miniature Schnauzer, Doberman, Chihuahua, Scotish Terrier, Golden Retriever and Springer Spaniel. Approximately 25% of dogs diagnosed with oral melanoma will survive for one year; 75% will not survive even this long.

Benign cutaneous melanomas of dogs are usually seen as round, firm, raised, darkly pigmented masses from one-quarter to 2 inches in diameter. They occur most often on the head, digits or back. Clinical signs of malignant melanomas in the mouths of dogs and cats include lack of appetite, drooling, bleeding in mouth, facial sweeling, Halitosis or bad breath, or difficulty eating. A lesion with irregular borders and variable colors. The lesion may be brown or black and it may also have shades of red, white or blue. Early recognition of melanomas can lead to more successful attempts at removal and identification of the grade or stage of cancer. The risk of metastasis for benign forms of melanoma is not very high but these can be locally invasive. Malignant melanomas can metastasize (spread) to any area of the body especially the lymph nodes and lungs and present very challenging and dangerous prospects for the dog. Cats seem much less susceptible to melanoma tumors than dogs. Presence of malignant melanoma may be first discovered in the lungs where diffuse pulmonary infiltration of tumors will be displayed throughout the lung tissue on a radiograph (x-ray). Lymph node swelling or enlargement may be a clinical sign of malignant spread of a melanoma. Some melanomas do not display the characteristic darkly pigmented color of most melanomas. The pigment called melanin is a hallmark of these tumors and usually is present in large amounts in melanomas.

Primary treatment for the melanoma in dog and cats is surgical removal of the lump. Melanomas on a pet's digit usually require amputation of the toe. A biopsy of the mass is needed to grade the tumor, ie, to determine its aggressiveness. Veterinarian may also recommend blood work, x-rays, ultrasound, and examination of lymph nodes to help determine a prognosis. Other treatments are chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or immunotherapy may be recommended to cure this tumor. If the melanoma has arisen from the oral cavity and has invaded the jaw, your veterinarian may recommend that part of the jaw bone be removed as well. Radiation to promote shrinkage of the tumor. Combination chemotherapy, including dacarbazine, has helped some patients. Commonly used drugs include carboplatin or cisplatin while a new vaccine called Canine Melanoma Vaccine has been given a conditional license for the treatment of stage II or stage III oral melanomas in dogs. The future does hold promise that genetic therapies directed at stimulating the dog's own immune system to attack and destroy tumor cells may be developed. Aggressive and radical surgery greatly increases survival times and decreases re-occurrence rates.

Author: Hannah Serrano is a passionate writer and webmaster of http://www.americaoutdoor.com, an informative website about petsafe and dog containment systems for dogs, pets and animals.

Thursday, February 19, 2009

Epulis - The Mouth/Oral Tumor in Dogs

Epulis is the most common type of benign or non-cancerous tumor in dog's mouth. A benign tumor is one that does not spread to other parts of the body. However, an epulis can be "locally invasive," which means that it can grow into the tissues surrounding its initial location. This tumor of the periodontal ligament, which is the structure that holds the dog's tooth in place. Epulides are the most common benign oral tumors in dogs; cats rarely have benign oral tumors. These tumors occur in dogs of any age, but they are generally found in middle-age dogs over six years old.

Epulides have three types and are recognized, grouped by tissue origin. The first is Fibromatous Epulis, they are pedunculated (on a stalk or stem) and non-ulcerating (no interruptions on the outside of the growth). Fibromatous is the most common non-cancerous oral tumor of dogs. These firm, pink tumors arise from the gums. Even a non-cancerous, Fibromatous may become quite large and completely envelop one or more teeth. also may not be possible to tell whether an oral tumor is an epulis or one of the less common, malignant tumors that may occur in the mouth. These growths may become inflamed and ulcerated, causing pain on chewing. They are most common in dogs over 8 years of age.

Other types of Epulis are Ossifying Epulis and Acanthomatous Epulis. Ossifying Epulis includes fibruous tissue and also contains bone cells and these may transform into a cancerous tumors. Ossifying has a greater abundance of hard tissue, osteoid, bone and cementum than fibromatous epulides. Fibromatous and ossifying epulides are now considered to be peripheral odontogenic fibromas, while Acanthomatous epulis is now called canine peripheral ameloblastoma or canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. Acanthomatous (also called Oral Adamantinoma) is a locally invasive, sometimes recurrent, tumor of the gums of dogs and sometimes cats. These routinely aggressively invade local tissues including bone and they generally do not metastasize, but due to their locally aggressive nature surgical excision must include a full 1-cm margin of clinically normal tissue to prevent recurrence.

An epulis is usually first noticed as a growth on the gum line of the dog's mouth. In rare cases, teeth may be moved from their normal position because of the growth of the epulis. Your pet is initially unaffected by the epulis. However, if the growth becomes large, it could bleed, cause problems with eating, or affect the teeth or jawbone. An epulis is treated by surgically removing it, including a broad margin around the growth. Sometimes, especially with larger tumors, teeth adjacent to the epulis have to be removed. In other cases, portions of the jawbone may need to be removed to cure the condition, for if a portion remains, it will often regrow. Radiation treatment is sometimes used in addition to or instead of surgery for treating large tumors. The prognosis is good if the entire epulis can be removed, so it's best to avoid delay of surgery that would allow the epulis to grow. After surgical removal, the prognosis can be very good depending on the type of epulis removed. A subtype of epulis called an "acanthomatous" epulis can cause more bone problems than the other types, and can be more difficult to completely remove.

Hannah Serrano is a passionate writer and webmaster of http://www.americaoutdoor.com, an informative website about petsafe and dog containment systems for dogs, pets and animals.

Thursday, February 12, 2009

About Yorkie Terrier Dog Breed

The Yorkshire Terrier dog breed belongs to Toy Group breed and considered one of the most popular dog breed. Yorkies are small affecionate toy breed, they are well-known wonderful dogs along being brave, determined, investigaive and energetic dogs from their terrier nature. Yorkshire terrier was also well-known with their long, luxurious blue and tan coats.

Yorkies can be very small, usually weighing no more than 7 pounds (3.18 kg); the standard of this breed does not mention the minimum weight accepted nor does it specify a height. Yorkshire Terriers are a long-haired breed with no undercoat; unlike their short haired friends, they do not shed at all. They are very friendly and handle children well. Related to name of the breed, Yorkshire Terrier was originated in Yorkshire (and the adjoining Lancashire), a rugged region in northern England. In the mid-nineteenth century, at the peak of England's Industrial Revolution, miners and mill workers from Scotland came to Yorkshire in search of work and brought with them several different varieties of small long-coated terriers, generally known as Broken Haired Scotch terriers. The specific breeds that make up the Yorkshire Terrier's ancestry are not known, since the breeders at that time did not keep records of the bloodlines. Certain breeds, however, are commonly thought to be the main forebears. The likely source of the Yorkie's small stature, long-haired coat, and blue color are Clydesdale, Paisley, and Skye terriers, all Scottish terriers transported to England at various times, and Waterside terriers. The Yorkshire Terrier was introduced in the United States in 1872 and the first Yorkie was registered with the American Kennel Club in 1878.

Yorkies are intelligent, Yorkshire Terrier is an above average working dog, ranking 27th (32nd including ties) out of the 132 breeds tested. Some Yorkshire Terriers may be timid or nervous, rather than bold, but the vast majority do seem to meet the breed standard for a confident, vigorous, and self-important personality. The following distinctive qualities are likely to be present in a Yorkshire Terrier: oblivious of its small size, it is eager for adventure. It is highly energetic, brave, loyal, and clever. Affectionate with its master, it can become suspicious of strangers and aggressive to strange dogs, if not properly socialized.

More often health issue of Yorkie Terrier include bronchitis, lymphangiectasia, Portosystemic shunt, cataracts, and keratitis sicca. Another common health condition in some Yorkies is their sensitive skin. The most common type of skin conditions Yorkies face are brought on by allergic reactions to seasonal pollen, pollution, food, and sometimes the air itself. Yorkies can have a delicate digestive system, with vomiting or diarrhea resulting from consumption of foods outside of a regular diet. These particular dogs are usually picky with which foods they eat. Due to their small size, Yorkies may be endangered if kept in the house with an undiscerning or abusive person, especially a child. Many breeders and rescue organizations will not allow their Yorkies to go to families with young children, because of the risk it poses to the dog. The life span of a healthy Yorkie is 10-15 years.

Sunday, February 1, 2009

Septic Bacterial Arthritis in Joints of Dogs

Septic Arthritis (in other terms as Bacterial Arthritis or Infectious Arthritis) is an infection in the fluid and tissues of joint cavity most commonly caused by bacteria. It is considered a dangerous form of acute arthritis in dogs because just like other bacterial infections, the bacterial can get into dog's bloodstream and carry an infecting organism into other parts of the body. Bacteria can cause infectious joint disease by tick-borne diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and by fungal infection. On Septic Arthritis, the primary bacterial sources, based on clinical search and studies, were associated with abscesses, bite wounds, enteritis, dermatitis, cystitis and/or endometritis after birth.

Septic arthritis normally only affects a single joint and the condition results in swelling, fever, heat, and pain in the joint. With septic arthritis, the dog is likely to stop eating and become depressed. Risk factors for septic arthritis are joint problems, rheumatoid arthritis, high infection risk, and a weak immune system. Septic arthritis is commonly spread hematogenously with predisposing factors being intravenous drug usage, in-dwelling catheters present as well as underlying immuno-compromised states. Bacteria are carried by the bloodstream from an infectious focus or are introduced by a skin lesion that penetrates the joint. Septic Arthritis most commonly occurred after surgeries of the stifle joints of dogs. The joint cavity is usually a sterile space, with synovial fluid and cellular matter including a few white blood cells. Some diagnosis was based on clinical signs, joint fluid analysis, radiography, microbiology and/or response to treatment. Chronic lameness was the most common problem at presentation. Analysis of joint fluid invariably revealed large number of nucleated cells, which consisted primarily of neutrophils. Bacterial septic arthritis may often be mild and manifest as chronic lameness. Analysis of joint fluid will detect an inflammatory arthropathy but the presence of toxic neutrophils should not be relied on as an indicator of sepsis. Culture of infected joint fluid is likely to be successful if antimicrobials are not given prior to collection and if the sample is inoculated into enrichment broth. Treatment should involve antimicrobial drugs, open-joint lavage and removal of joint prostheses if the infection is associated with previous surgery.

Septic arthritis might be difficult to diagnose due to nonspecific clinical signs and radiological findings in early stage of the disease. An early diagnosis is important for achieving favorable prognosis. Diagnosis of septic arthritis was confirmed by physical and orthopaedic examinations, evaluation of radiographs and synovial fluid analysis including leukocyte and neutrophil counts, cytological examination and bacterial culture. Bacteria is one of the most common causes of infective arthritis in dogs. However, bacterial arthritis in dogs can resemble many other arthropathies and attempts to achieve a definitive diagnosis by culture of the offending organism are not always successful.

The treatment of Septic Arthritis involves determining the type of microorganism involved and its antibiotic sensitivity. Antibiotics are usually administered for a minimum of a month and analgesics (pain relief medications) are necessary to combat pain and inflammation. Other major treatment involves antimicrobial drugs, while there many other cases the dog received antimicrobial drugs and with combination of surgical procedures such as joint lavage and sometimes removable of non-absorbent suture material, arthrodesis and amputation. The surgical treatment for septic arthritis (infectious arthritis) includes removal of joint fluid. To examine white blood cells and bacteria blood tests are performed.

Feel free to visit the author's innovative sites: Petsafe | Dog Containment.

Sunday, January 18, 2009

Acute Renal Kidney Failure in Dogs

Acute renal failure or ARF is characterized by a rapid onset of renal insufficiency/failure, reduction in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow, and the clinical and biochemical aftermath of the excretory failure. This is a serious form of kidney disease where the dog's kidney quit working all of a sudden and that commonly leads to death. The kidneys have an abrupt decrease in the GFR due to a toxin or loss of adequate blood supply (called ischemia). The excretory failure is identified by rapid (hours to days) increases in BUN, serum creatinine and phosphate, and variable hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis. Acute renal failure is a tenuously reversible state, which must be diagnosed quickly and aggressively treated. Failure to initiate therapy may result in irreversible parenchymal damage or death. Acute renal failure is frequently a complication of other surgical or medical diseases and must be recognized within the clinical features of these associated disorders.

Common clinical signs of kidney failures in dogs are loss of appetite, depression, vomiting, diarrhea, very bad breath, pale gums and ulcers in the mouth. While the consistent signs of severe ARF include the sudden onset and rapid development of listlessness, depression, anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea. Oliguria and less frequently anuria were at one time considered signatures of ARF and discriminators for chronic renal failure. Some causes of ARF are due to low blood pressure or a decrease in blood volume, lack of blood supply to the kidneys, a urninary blockage or dogs in-take of some poisonous plants or toxins, most notably the antifreeze ( 95% ethylene glycol) which are catastrophic to the kidneys. Antifreeze is very sweet tasting and is readily licked by both dogs and cats if it spills on the ground when car antifreeze is changed. Ethylene glycol is converted in the liver and kidney to a toxic metabolite that changes the pH of the bloodstream and destroys the kidneys by depositing calcium oxalate crystals in the renal tubules. It is a medical emergency and requires specific and immediate measures if the kidneys are to be saved. Unfortunately, unless a pet owner actually observes their pet licking antifreeze, they don't bring their pet in for care until it is very ill.

Treatment of renal kidney disease is aimed at preventing or slowing further kidney damage. One phase to treat kidney is to "restart" it. The large quantities of intravenous fluids are given to "flush out" the kidneys. This flushing process, called diuresis, helps to stimulate the kidney cells to function again. If enough functional kidney cells remain, they may be able to adequately meet the body's needs for waste removal. Fluid therapy includes replacement of various electrolytes, especially potassium. Other important aspects of initial treatment include proper nutrition and drugs to control vomiting and diarrhea. The possible outcome of these treatment, the kidneys will resume functioning and continue to function for a few weeks to a few years. Also the kidneys will resume functioning during treatment but fail again as soon as treatment stops or maybe the kidney will not return. Another phase of treatment is to keep the kidneys functioning as soon as possible. First method, the dog will undergo a speical diet which the food contains low in protein, low in phosphorus, and not acidified. Another method is a phosphate binder where phosphorous is removed from the body by filtering through the kidneys and once the filtration process is impaired, phosphorous begins to accumulate in the blood. Another process is giving a drug to regulate the parathyroid gland and calcium levels. Calcium and phosphorus must remain at about a 2:1 ratio in the blood. The increase in blood phosphorus level stimulates the parathyroid gland to increase the blood calcium level by removing it from bones. Once the dog is stabilized, fluids can be given under the skin (subcutaneously). This serves to continually "restart" the kidneys as their function begins to fail again. This is done once daily to once weekly, depending on the degree of kidney failure.

Another option is kidney transplants and dialysis and becoming more accessible for pets today, but due to the high costs, aren’t practical for most pet owners. Many cases that the dogs with renal failure are successfully managed and live long happy lives. Common prevention of such dog diseases it to have a regular laboratory testing preformed with the yearly vet visit can help to detect early stages of renal failure before they appear, and starting early treatment can help to slow or halt loss of kidney function to improve the pet's quality of life.

If you find these article is helpful, feel free to visit the author's innovative sites: petsafe and dog crates.

Thursday, January 15, 2009

About Shiloh Shepherd

A resemble from German Shepherd, Shiloh Shepherd is a minorly recognized dog breed that has been developed in 1970. Comparing to German Shepherds, Shiloh tend to be bigger with better hips. The breed was well-known in excellence of their intelligence, temperament, pigment and conformation and really good companion. Shilohs are courageous and self-confident dog that will willingly protect its family, yet it is friendly and a good companion to its friends and family.

The Shiloh Shepherd portrays a distinct impression of nobility with a superior aura of intelligence that radiates a sense of regal wisdom and strength. Powerfully built with unsurpassed beauty and elegance; a picture of true balance; each part being in harmonious proportion to every other part, and to the whole. The Shiloh Shepherd is powerfully built and well-balanced and should have a proud carriage and smooth, effortless gait. The male Shiloh stands 30 inches (76 cm) or more in height with a minimum of 28 inches (71 cm); he weighs 140 to 160 pounds (63-72 kg) with a minimum of 120 pounds (54.5 kg). The female is smaller, standing 28 inches (71 cm) or more in height with a minimum of 26 inches (66 cm) and weighing 100 to 120 pounds (45-54.5 kg) with a minimum of 80 pounds (36 kg). With their even proportions, Shilohs should appear longer than they are tall.

Shilohs come in two distinct coat varieties: the smooth or double coat and the plush coat. The smooth coat should be of medium length and lie close to the body; the hair at the neck and on the back of the fore and hind legs may be longer and thicker than other areas. The outer coat will be dense, straight, and harsh. The plush coat is longer, with a soft undercoat and a distinctive "mane" which extends to the chest. Shiloh coat color may be bi or dual colored in black with tan, golden tan, reddish tan, silver, or cream. They also can be solid golden, silver, red, dark brown, dark grey, or black sable. Solid black and solid white are possible, but for show purposes, the nose, lips, and eye rims must be solid black. Blue and liver colors are possible but not bred since they are disqualifying faults.

Bred as companions, Shilohs have loyal and outgoing personalities. They were developed to be gentle and loving, able to work with animals and children, while still possessing a trainable drive for working applications, such as assistive service, obedience, or herding. Shilohs extremely versatile and easily trained companion loves to swim, carry packs for the mountain climber, endure long trail rides, or pull heavy sleds. His excellent Air Scenting ability can be utilized in various ways.

Shilohs may experience problems with bloat. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth syndrome has also been reported and can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain and difficulty absorbing nutrients from food. Shilohs are susceptible to hip dysplasia and other skeletal disorders. Rare cases of osteochondritis have also been reported. Panosteitis may occur during a Shiloh's growth stages.

Tuesday, January 6, 2009

Dilated Cardiomyopathy - Heart Failure In Dogs

Cardiomyopathy refers to disease of the heart muscle (the myocardium) without malformation of the heart or its valves. The term cardiomyopathy literally means "sick heart muscle." There is a breed predisposition to dilated cardiomyopathy in giant breeds, as well as in Doberman pinschers and boxers. Dilated cardiomyopathy is not the most common cause of heart failure in dogs in general. However, this is the most common cause of heart failure in large breeds of dogs. Small breeds are only occasionally affected. The most commonly affected breeds are Boxers, Doberman Pinschers, and Great danes. Occasionally, medium sized breeds, notably Cocker Spaniels and English Springer Spaniels, are also affected. Cardiomyopathy can also develop as a result of some toxins or infections. Heart failure occurs when the blood returning to the heart from the rest of the body cannot be pumped out fast enough to meet the demands of body tissues. Heart muscle disease is one of the potential causes of heart failure. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a condition characterized by a variety of changes in the heart muscle that result in pump failure. As the name implies, the heart chambers are usually dilated or enlarged, and the heart muscle itself is usually thin and weak, contracting with much less vigor than normal. The heart works harder to compensate for the loss of contractility, eventually leading to congestive heart failure. The abnormalities in the heart muscle cells give rise to irregular heart rhythms which may cause sudden death so proper petsafe is necessary.

Dilated cardiomyopathy is by far the most common type in the dog. There is dilation of the chambers of the ventricles of the heart with some increase (hypertrophy) in the heart muscle mass, and a loss of the normal contracting abilities of the ventricles. Dilated cardiomyopathy, or DCM, occurs when the heart muscle is thin, weak, and does not contract properly. DCM most commonly affects large or giant purebred dogs, but it also can be seen in smaller breeds such as cocker spaniels, and in mixed breed dogs. The condition can lead to congestive heart failure, in which fluid accumulates in the lungs, the chest or abdominal cavities, or under the skin. Because of reduced blood flow to the rest of the body, DCM also can result in weakness, fainting, and exercise intolerance. Abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias, frequently accompany DCM, and can complicate the treatment of dogs with this disease. It is also common for dogs with DCM to show signs of both right and left heart failure. These signs can include weakness and exercise intolerance, and difficulty breathing with increased activity. Weight loss is common in dogs with DCM that do not retain fluid. Some animals exhibit signs due to reduced blood flow to tissues, including pale mucous membranes, bluish color to the mucous membranes, and cold feet and legs. Fainting may occur if abnormal heart rhythms are present, or if the heart's output is severely reduced. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a form of cardiomyopathy, there is a tremendous increase in the mass of the heart muscle in the ventricles, with a resultant decrease in chamber size. Relatively few cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in dogs have been reported, and no significant breed predisposition has been identified. Most of the dogs affected have been male.

Blood and urine tests do not give direct information about heart function, but they allow an understanding of other disorders in the body that may impact on heart function and treatment of heart disease. Chest radiographs (x-rays) provide the best look at the lungs and a view of the size and shape of the heart. In most cases, dilated cardiomyopathy causes tremendous enlargement of the heart. These changes are usually very apparent on x-rays.lectrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is an assessment of the electrical activity of the heart. It accurately determines the heart rate and to more accurately identify any arrhythmias which might be present. Ultrasound examination (Sonogram, Echocardiogram) uses sound waves which bounce off the structures of the heart and are read on a TV-like monitor. It gives the most accurate determination of the size of each heart chamber, and permits measurement of the thickness of the heart walls. This is seen on the monitor in actual time so the contractions of the heart can be evaluated. Certain measurements can be taken which allow the actual strength of the heart's contraction to be measured as a number and compared to the normal animal. Ultrasound may not be available in all private veterinary practices because of the additional training needed to learn how to perform the examination and because of the cost of the equipment.

If the dog has a sudden onset of heart failure, rapid administration of the proper drugs is essential to survival. The following drugs may be used at various stages of treatment. Diuretics drugs stimulate the kidneys to remove excess fluid from the body. Furosemide is most commonly used, although others will be selected in certain circumstances. Nitroglycerin drug is called a venodilator; it dilates the veins throughout the body, especially the ones going to the heart muscle. It decreases the amount of blood returning to the heart by allowing some of it to pool in the veins. This takes some of the workload off the heart. This drug can be very useful for treating pulmonary edema, but it is only effective for a few days. Digitalis drug improves heart function in several ways. It regulates excess hormones that have been released, slows the heart rate, and strengthens each contraction of the heart. Enzyme blockers is a relatively new class of drugs which can directly block the compensation system that has gotten out of control. Vasodilators drugs dilate the arteries and/or the veins of the body so that the heart doesn't have to generate as much pressure to eject blood. They may be used long-term because they continue to be effective, as opposed to the short-term effects of nitroglycerin. Dogs treated with these drugs should be carefully watched for toxity and needs enough rest on dog crates. Loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, and lethargy should be reported to the veterinarian immediately.

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